Presbyterian refers not so much to a particular set of doctrines but instead to a particular form of church government. For Presbyterians, the church is governed by a group of elders, or presbyters. There are teaching elders, who are the ordained ministers, and ruling elders who are elected from the body of church members. In each individual church, the elders are invested with authority in all spiritual matters.
Reformed theology challenged the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and returned it to a Biblically centered theological perspective focusing on the sovereignty of Scripture, the sovereignty of God, His election, redemption, and our securing in Christ's work. This began in the sixteenth century with Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers. Simply stated… Reformed theology represents the restoration of the church to the basic principles of the authority of Scripture and is definitive of this local church.